GCC will only eliminate the asm statement if the output isn't used, which is what you want. When the result isn't used the most optimal implementation of the absolute value function is nothing at all. To test if the inline assembly is working you need to write a more realistic example where the result is actually used.
If you must use a specific register, but your Machine Constraints do not provide sufficient control to select the specific register you want, local register variables may provide a solution see Local Register Variables. Input constraints can also be digits for example, "0". This indicates that the specified input must be in the same place as the output constraint at the zero-based index in the output constraint list.
The enclosing parentheses are a required part of the syntax. When the compiler selects the registers to use to represent the input operands, it does not use any of the clobbered registers see Clobbers and Scratch Registers.
If there are no output operands but there are input operands, place two consecutive colons where the output operands would go: Do not modify the contents of input-only operands except for inputs tied to outputs. The compiler assumes that on exit from the asm statement these operands contain the same values as they had before executing the statement.
It is not possible to use clobbers to inform the compiler that the values in these inputs are changing. One common work-around is to tie the changing input variable to an output variable that never gets used. Note, however, that if the code that follows the asm statement makes no use of any of the output operands, the GCC optimizers may discard the asm statement as unneeded see Volatile.
Typically these qualifiers are hardware dependent.
The list of supported modifiers for x86 is found at x86 Operand modifiers. In this example using the fictitious combine instruction, the constraint "0" for input operand 1 says that it must occupy the same location as output operand 0. Only input operands may use numbers in constraints, and they must each refer to an output operand.
Only a number or the symbolic assembler name in the constraint can guarantee that one operand is in the same place as another. The mere fact that foo is the value of both operands is not enough to guarantee that they are in the same place in the generated assembler code.
For example, calculations may require additional registers, or the processor may overwrite a register as a side effect of a particular assembler instruction. In order to inform the compiler of these changes, list them in the clobber list.
Clobber list items are either register names or the special clobbers listed below. Each clobber list item is a string constant enclosed in double quotes and separated by commas. Clobber descriptions may not in any way overlap with an input or output operand.
For example, you may not have an operand describing a register class with one member when listing that register in the clobber list. Variables declared to live in specific registers see Explicit Register Variables and used as asm input or output operands must have no part mentioned in the clobber description.
In particular, there is no way to specify that input operands get modified without also specifying them as output operands. When the compiler selects which registers to use to represent input and output operands, it does not use any of the clobbered registers.
As a result, clobbered registers are available for any use in the assembler code. Here is a realistic example for the VAX showing the use of clobbered registers: On some machines, GCC represents the condition codes as a specific hardware register; "cc" serves to name this register.
On other machines, condition code handling is different, and specifying "cc" has no effect. But it is valid no matter what the target. To ensure memory contains correct values, GCC may need to flush specific register values to memory before executing the asm.
Further, the compiler does not assume that any values read from memory before an asm remain unchanged after that asm; it reloads them as needed.
Note that this clobber does not prevent the processor from doing speculative reads past the asm statement. To prevent that, you need processor-specific fence instructions. Flushing registers to memory has performance implications and may be an issue for time-sensitive code.
You can provide better information to GCC to avoid this, as shown in the following examples. Here is a fictitious sum of squares instruction, that takes two pointers to floating point values in memory and produces a floating point register output.
Notice that x, and y both appear twice in the asm parameters, once to specify memory accessed, and once to specify a base register used by the asm. It might be a symbolic memory reference to the object pointed to by x. Here is an example of a PowerPC vector scale implemented in assembly, complete with vector and condition code clobbers, and some initialized offset registers that are unchanged by the asm.
This gives the compiler register allocator more freedom. You can also define a variable and make it an output tied to an input as with a0 and a1, tied respectively to ap and lda. This is why a1 has an early-clobber.
It is also not desirable in this case.Yes, gcc can also compile assembly source code. Alternatively, you can invoke as, which is the assembler.
(gcc is just a "driver" program that uses heuristics to call C compiler, C++ compiler, assembler, linker, etc..). The "memory" clobber tells the compiler that the assembly code performs memory reads or writes to items other than those listed in the input and output operands (for example, accessing the memory pointed to by one of the input parameters).
Were they writing Assembler in Machine Code? Assembly is essentially a mnemonic for machine code; each opcode in the machine language is given an assembly mnemonic i.e.
in x86 NOP is 0x It doesn't make sense to me writing a machine code translator for a low level language in a higher level language. re-writing the cross compiler to.
Inline asm is completely pointless here. GCC already knows how to optimize an absolute-value, and hiding that process from the compiler inside inline asm will make your code optimize worse, not better.
Is there a way to insert assembly code into C? Ask Question. whenever possible tweak your source code to help the compiler make better code, instead of using inline asm.
It's a good idea to write some sample code in C, then ask GCC to produce an assembly listing, then modify that code. share. GNU Compiler Collection (compiler system) Assembly Language.
Compilers. which is writing assembly.) For example: To summarize - generally it is very hard to write assembly code that can beat a compiler generated code. Views · .