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This review 1 considers data from multiple domains, e. Alterations to the brain's motivational system are explored as a possible etiology underlying pornography-related sexual dysfunctions. Clinical reports suggest that terminating Internet pornography use is sometimes sufficient to reverse negative effects, underscoring the need for extensive investigation using methodologies that have subjects remove the variable of Internet pornography use.
In the interim, a simple diagnostic protocol for assessing patients with porn-induced sexual dysfunction is put forth. Trends in Sexual Dysfunction—Unanswered Questions Up until the last decade, rates of ED were low in sexually active men under 40, and did not begin to rise steeply until thereafter [ 12 ].
In contrast, recent studies on ED and low sexual desire document a sharp increase in prevalence of such dysfunctions in men under In —, it was administered to 13, sexually active men in 29 countries [ 5 ].
The first group, in —, were aged 40— The second group, inwere 40 and under. Based on the findings of historical studies cited earlier, older men would be expected to have far higher ED rates than the negligible rates of younger men [ 27 ].
However, in just a decade, things changed radically.
In the last few years, research using a variety of assessment instruments has revealed further evidence of an unprecedented increase in sexual difficulties among young men. A study on Canadian adolescents reported that A study by this same group assessed sexual problems in adolescents 16—21 years in five waves over a two-year period.
For males, persistent problems in at least one wave were low sexual satisfaction The researchers noted that over time rates of sexual problems declined for females, but not for males [ 11 ].
A study of new diagnoses of ED in active duty servicemen reported that rates had more than doubled between and [ 12 ]. Rates of psychogenic ED increased more than organic ED, while rates of unclassified ED remained relatively stable [ 12 ]. A cross-sectional study of active duty, relatively healthy, male military personnel aged 21—40 employing the five-item IIEF-5 found an overall ED rate of The researchers also noted that sexual dysfunctions are subject to underreporting biases related to stigmatization [ 14 ], and that only 1.
Traditionally, ED has been seen as an age-dependent problem [ 2 ], and studies investigating ED risk factors in men under 40 have often failed to identify the factors commonly associated with ED in older men, such as smoking, alcoholism, obesity, sedentary life, diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and hyperlipidemia [ 16 ].
ED is usually classified as either psychogenic or organic. Psychogenic ED has been related to psychological factors e.
However, none of the familiar correlative factors suggested for psychogenic ED seem adequate to account for a rapid many-fold increase in youthful sexual difficulties. For example, some researchers hypothesize that rising youthful sexual problems must be the result of unhealthy lifestyles, such as obesity, substance abuse and smoking factors historically correlated with organic ED.
Yet these lifestyle risks have not changed proportionately, or have decreased, in the last 20 years: Obesity rates in U. Other authors propose psychological factors. Yet, how likely is it that anxiety and depression account for the sharp rise in youthful sexual difficulties given the complex relationship between sexual desire and depression and anxiety?
Some depressed and anxious patients report less desire for sex while others report increased sexual desire [ 22232425 ].
Not only is the relationship between depression and ED likely bidirectional and co-occurring, it may also be the consequence of sexual dysfunction, particularly in young men [ 26 ]. While it is difficult to quantify rates of other psychological factors hypothesized to account for the sharp rise in youthful sexual difficulties, such as stress, distressed relationships, and insufficient sex education, how reasonable is it to presume that these factors are 1 not bidirectional and 2 have mushroomed at rates sufficient to explain a rapid multi-fold increase in youthful sexual difficulties, such as low sexual desire, difficulty orgasming, and ED?
Kinsey Institute researchers were among the first to report pornography-induced erectile-dysfunction PIED and pornography-induced abnormally low libido, in [ 27 ].
The researchers actually redesigned their study to include more varied clips and permit some self-selection. Since then, evidence has mounted that Internet pornography may be a factor in the rapid surge in rates of sexual dysfunction.
A study on high school seniors found that Internet pornography use frequency correlated with low sexual desire [ 29 ]. Another study of men average age Anxiety about sexual performance may impel further reliance on pornography as a sexual outlet.
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Clinicians have also described pornography-related sexual dysfunctions, including PIED. For example, in his book The New Naked, urology professor Harry Fisch reported that excessive Internet pornography use impairs sexual performance in his patients [ 32 ], and psychiatry professor Norman Doidge reported in his book The Brain That Changes Itself that removal of Internet pornography use reversed impotence and sexual arousal problems in his patients [ 33 ].
InBronner and Ben-Zion reported that a compulsive Internet pornography user whose tastes had escalated to extreme hardcore pornography sought help for low sexual desire during partnered sex.Research on the Effectiveness of Alcoholism Treatment in the alcoholism literature published between and He noted that 67 percent of the alcoholism.
Their comprehensive review analyzed research evidence for each of the treatment modal-ities then in . A Literature Review of the Factors that Influence Alcohol Consumption and the Effectiveness of Past Interventions.
A Literature Review of the Factors that Influence Alcohol Consumption and the Effectiveness of Past Interventions. Author. Simone Pettigrew. Files. 1 of 2. pdf. Follow Dr Hoffer's instructions and see that niacin therapy is safe and effective.
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A review of the scientific literature regarding the effects of alcohol on driving-related skills was conducted. One hundred and twelve articles - from to - were reviewed.
Results were indexed by BAC and behavioral area and entered into a database. literature review, Substance Abuse Among Aging Adults: An Annotated Bibliography (Feidler, Pertica, Leary, & Strohl, ), catalogs and classifies studies and other literature, as well as provides a roadmap to the data sources available on substance abuse among aging adults.