My not having read it all these years testifies to either an individual failure on my part to seize the opportunity for this pleasure-charged learning experience since I actually intended to lecture on Lazaro Francisco's novel when I was invited last yearor a failure of the educational-cultural apparatuses to enlighten Filipinos like me about their society and history—nay, their own identities as Filipinos—which up to now is in the process of being constructed by the ongoing practices and what Raymond Williams calls "structures of feelings" of everyday life. For, indeed, Javellana's novel is virtually the parabolic rendering in fictional form of about half-a-century of our existence as a people, but not yet as a nation, as I will argue in a moment.
The latter might endanger the morals of an individual; the former invariably endangers the morals of the entire country. Forwarding the postings to relatives and friends,especially in the homeland, is greatly appreciated. To share, use all social media tools: An analysis of the agrarian institutions and different types of development that have occurred in a number of regions provide a broad representation of the current situation.
The implementation of the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program CARPintroduced by President Corazon Aquino inhas been slow, and the two case studies described in the article reveal the obstructions and complexities that are encountered in the administration of justice through agrarian reform.
Although there are differences in the features and contexts of the two cases presented, they both demonstrate the important role of civil society groups, such as peasant and non-governmental organizations, in facilitating the conflict resolution process.
That afternoon they had discussed the merits of the solution proposed by the Department of Agrarian Reform DAR on how the hectares of land could be divided between their cooperative and another group, the Federation of Free Farmers FFFwho were also making claims on the land.
Pablito argued that they had prior right to the land; after all, the FFF were really just settlers who came from another part of the province. While walking back to his farm, Pablito was stabbed to death by some members of the FFF.
This incident almost ignited a violent confrontation between the two groups that would have cost more lives. The government stepped in immediately and handed down its decision.
This incident is an example of numerous agrarian-related land conflict problems in the Philippines. It demonstrates how the absence of conflict resolution mechanisms leads to violent and undesirable consequences. The main premise of this article is that land conflict is influenced by the prevailing agrarian situation.
In the Philippines, land conflict stems from a condition where land reform is being implemented, albeit slowly and with much difficulty. The second major premise is that civil society groups play an important role in facilitating the resolution of land conflicts.
The next few sections will attempt to examine the relationship of land conflict with the agrarian reform situation. It is change resulting from the transfer of ownership from landowner to landless farmer, change from being formerly landless to being an owner cultivator, and change from being powerless to being empowered.
Its very nature, therefore, easily becomes a source of resistance, dispute, controversy and conflict. In the case of the Philippines, agrarian reform is being implemented by the state as a social justice measure to change the prevailing situation of unjust and inequitable ownership of land and resources by a few individuals in society.
For hundreds of years, from the Spanish occupation of the Philippines in the s to the present, agricultural lands have been in the possession of a few powerful landlords and corporations.
The majority of people have remained as tenants, farm workers and landless agricultural labourers, a factor that has contributed to the poverty in the countryside.
Land conflict stems mainly from agrarian disputes brought about by the prevailing agrarian situation. Hayami, Quisumbing and Adriano 1 relate three major sources of agrarian unrest in the Philippines to the social transformations that occurred in the evolution of the Philippine agrarian structures.
First, the emergence of agrarian institutions in the Central Luzon and Southern Tagalog regions in the Philippines represent disputes between tenants and landlords. Second, the development of the sugar industry in Luzon, based on tenanted haciendas, and then Negros Islands, based on centrally managed haciendas employing hired labour, represent confrontations between wage labourers and hacendero planters in traditional plantations.
Third, the emergence of modern plantations and commercial farms in the southern island of Mindanao represents confrontation between wage labourers and corporate management in modern agribusiness plantations.
Agrarian conflict in tenanted lands Landownership was communal in pre-Hispanic Philippine society. Land was owned by the barangay village and individuals had rights to use the land and make it productive.
The Spaniards introduced private ownership through the granting of legal titles. Thus began the accumulation of land by indigenous elite groups in connivance with the Spanish authorities. The transformation of smallholders to tenants was aided by the usurious and oppressive practices of landlords.
Hans Bobek 2 calls "rent capitalism" what arises from the commercialization of a feudal economy in such a way that the original claims of the aristocracy upon peasant services are transferred into more explicitly profit-seeking obligations. According to Bobek, "it is an absolute ideal of the rent capitalist to get as many peasants as possible into debt so permanently that with all their yearly payments they can never liquidate the initial debt, which soon becomes legendary.
It is not surprising that the early government land reform programmes from to were designed to address tenancy regulations and redistribute lands in the tenanted rice and maize areas.
A more recent source of tension and conflict in OLT areas is the growing number of cancellations of emancipation patents or land reform titles under the OLT programme. Organized peasant groups have criticized the DAR for what it calls "land reversion" because the DAR bodies adjudicating the petitions made by the former landlords were cancelling land titles already given to farmers.
The farmer who has been given the title has legal recourse to object to the cancellation. In most cases, farmers who have access to legal or paralegal support have better chances of winning their cases. Otherwise, the landlords are able to use their money and power to get their lands back.
Finally, there was hope that the thousands of hectares of land planted to sugar under the hacienda system that had been in existence since the time of Spanish occupation would be given to thousands of poor landless workers.
But more than ten years after the implementation of CARP, the sugar haciendas, especially in the Negros Islands, have barely been touched. These haciendas continue to be the last bastion of feudalism in the Philippines.Agrarian reform can refer either, narrowly, to government-initiated or government-backed redistribution of agricultural land (see land reform) or, broadly, to an overall redirection of the agrarian system of the country, which often includes land reform measures.
Agrarian reform can include credit measures, training, extension, land consolidations, etc. Southern reaction to the request was bitterly hostile; many people, in South Carolina’s Charles Pinckney delivered a comprehensive reply to Jay. According to Pinckney, wrote Jon Kukla: “Jay’s argument had three parts.
you have more than one sacrifice to make. To reform the prodigalities of our predecessors is understood to be. Because of the highly contentious nature of agrarian reform, it is important that the Government of the Philippines, in the shortest time possible, complete the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program.
The programme cannot be protracted indefinitely, otherwise land conflicts will continue to escalate. In this research paper, land reform which can also be called as “agrarian reform” involves many things such as making changes in the regulations and laws regarding the ownership of land.
The term may refer to public programs made by the government. Land reform, or the broader term "agrarian reform," has been a government policy even before the Commonwealth era. In fact, at the onset of the American regime, initial steps toward land reform were already taken to address social unrest.
4 Then, under the Constitution, specific provisions. On June 15, , RA or the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law of , also known as CARL or the CARP Law, took effect, ushering in a new process of land .