Abstract Background The benefits of expressive writing have been well documented among several populations, but particularly among those who report feelings of dysphoria. It is not known, however, if those diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder MDD would also benefit from expressive writing. On day 1 of testing, participants completed a series of questionnaires and cognitive tasks. On day 5 of testing, participants completed another series of questionnaires and cognitive measures.
First experiments[ edit ] As early asGerman physicist Heinrich Hertz showed that radio waves could be reflected from solid objects. InAlexander Popova physics instructor at the Imperial Russian Navy school in Kronstadtdeveloped an apparatus using a coherer tube for detecting distant lightning strikes.
The next year, he added a spark-gap transmitter. Inwhile testing this equipment for communicating between two ships in the Baltic Seahe took note of an interference beat caused by the passage of a third vessel. In his report, Popov wrote that this phenomenon might be used for detecting objects, but he did nothing more with this observation.
Inhe demonstrated the feasibility of detecting a ship in dense fog, but not its distance from the transmitter. He also got a British patent on September 23,  for a full radar system, that he called a telemobiloscope.
His system already used the classic antenna setup of horn antenna with parabolic reflector and was presented to German military officials in practical tests in Cologne and Rotterdam harbour but was rejected. Through his lightning experiments, Watson-Watt became an expert on the Paperlessinitiative ew 2 instructions f of radio direction finding before turning his inquiry to shortwave transmission.
Requiring a suitable receiver for such studies, he told the "new boy" Arnold Frederic Wilkins to conduct an extensive review of available shortwave units.
Wilkins would select a General Post Office model after noting its manual's description of a "fading" effect the common term for interference at the time when aircraft flew overhead. Across the Atlantic inafter placing a transmitter and receiver on opposite sides of the Potomac RiverU.
Hoyt Taylor and Leo C. Young discovered that ships passing through the beam path caused the received signal to fade in and out. Taylor submitted a report, suggesting that this phenomenon might be used to detect the presence of ships in low visibility, but the Navy did not immediately continue the work.
Eight years later, Lawrence A. Hyland at the Naval Research Laboratory NRL observed similar fading effects from passing aircraft; this revelation led to a patent application  as well as a proposal for further intensive research on radio-echo signals from moving targets to take place at NRL, where Taylor and Young were based at the time.
AustraliaCanadaNew Zealandand South Africa followed prewar Great Britain's radar development, and Hungary generated its radar technology during the war.
Hugon, began developing an obstacle-locating radio apparatus, aspects of which were installed on the ocean liner Normandie in In total, only Redut stations were produced during the war. The first Russian airborne radar, Gneiss-2entered into service in June on Pe-2 fighters.
More than Gneiss-2 stations were produced by the end of Full radar evolved as a pulsed system, and the first such elementary apparatus was demonstrated in December by the American Robert M.
Pageworking at the Naval Research Laboratory. Watson-Watt in Great Britain. Wilkins returned a set of calculations demonstrating the system was basically impossible.
When Watson-Watt then asked what such a system might do, Wilkins recalled the earlier report about aircraft causing radio interference.
This revelation led to the Daventry Experiment of 26 Februaryusing a powerful BBC shortwave transmitter as the source and their GPO receiver setup in a field while a bomber flew around the site. When the plane was clearly detected, Hugh Dowdingthe Air Member for Supply and Research was very impressed with their system's potential and funds were immediately provided for further operational development.
Work there resulted in the design and installation of aircraft detection and tracking stations called " Chain Home " along the East and South coasts of England in time for the outbreak of World War II in This system provided the vital advance information that helped the Royal Air Force win the Battle of Britain ; without it, significant numbers of fighter aircraft would always need to be in the air to respond quickly enough if enemy aircraft detection relied solely on the observations of ground-based individuals.
Also vital was the " Dowding system " of reporting and coordination to make best use of the radar information during tests of early deployment of radar in and Given all required funding and development support, the team produced working radar systems in and began deployment.
Even by standards of the era, CH was crude; instead of broadcasting and receiving from an aimed antenna, CH broadcast a signal floodlighting the entire area in front of it, and then used one of Watson-Watt's own radio direction finders to determine the direction of the returned echoes.
This fact meant CH transmitters had to be much more powerful and have better antennas than competing systems but allowed its rapid introduction using existing technologies.
Radar in World War II A key development was the cavity magnetron in the UK, which allowed the creation of relatively small systems with sub-meter resolution.
Britain shared the technology with the U. Later, inPage greatly improved radar with the monopulse technique that was used for many years in most radar applications. Applications[ edit ] Commercial marine radar antenna. The rotating antenna radiates a vertical fan-shaped beam.
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A unique. type of request, as allowed in the budget guidelines. Refer to Attachment 2 for additional information. • Administration Initiative (Al): Requests for positions and that support the Administration's priorities. PaperlessInitiative EW 2 Instructions F Initiative: Form W- 2 Instructions for Employee Consent The following instructions will enable you to consent to receive your Form W- 2 electronically (eW- 2).