History[ edit ] Ancient and medieval[ edit ] The use of prisons can be traced back to the rise of the state as a form of social organization. Corresponding with the advent of the state was the development of written languagewhich enabled the creation of formalized legal codes as official guidelines for society. The best known of these early legal codes is the Code of Hammurabiwritten in Babylon around BC.
Introduction Criminology is not an old science; nevertheless it is possible to say that the steps of its creation started long before its official definition as a science. The necessity of this science is especially high nowadays when, the level of crime has risen immensely in every corner of the planet.
The attempt to explain the human behavior has already become a priority for many scientists all over the world. The rich socio-historical experience of the humanity in the past gives an additional opportunity for adequate understanding of modern criminology and the problems solved by the given branch of knowledge.
Criminology had several factors that especially influenced its development. These factors provide a lot of back up information for a better understanding of criminology and its possibilities.
Peculiarities of criminology Criminology is a socially-legal interdisciplinary science and an integral part of legislation. As it has been already mentioned, the beginning of the existence of criminology as a separate science started in the middle of the XIX century.
Its start is strongly associated with the works of a famous criminologist Cesar Lombroso. Criminology as a science has a list of primary problems that it is to solve. The first one to mention is the analytical problem which lies in the detailed researched of the phenomenon of criminality, its general condition and the categorization of all the existing criminal manifestations.
Other problems include the prognosis of the potential criminal situation, the prevention of criminality and the determination of the causes and the consequences of crime.
One of the most important criminological issues of the new era is the designation of the crime determinants. So basically criminology has four main priorities to study: There have been many attempts to understand the true causes of crime.
These attempts are especially revealed through the existing theories in criminology. Nevertheless, the biological and the psychological theories are the ones most spread and their contradiction constantly results in numerous arguments between the supporters of both of the theories.
In order to make any concrete conclusions on any of these theories it is necessary to analyze them and their contribution in criminology.
Biological theories in criminology The biological theories primarily study the physical constitution and endocrinology. They are a bright example of the theories that has not really got any practical support. The misunderstanding of these theories has caused a stereotype that if a person is a criminal then he was born as a criminal and any steps taken in order to change or to influence them are useless.
Biological theories are only a part and one the interpretation of criminality but not the only. In the present time there is no assertive evidence of the fact, that the physical constitution and other biological factors cause criminality. Nevertheless, these theories have a right to exist and there was a lot of important information that was used in terms of the development of criminology as a science.
The most vivid example of the biological determinism is the theory of Cesare Lombroso. Lombroso based his theory on the assumption that criminals have certain physiognomic features or abnormalities.
Lombroso wanted to be able to detect future criminals in order to isolate them from the society. This gave criminology a strong push to create new methods of dealing with criminals and prevent crimes.
Lombroso implied that prisoners had common facial characteristics. Lombroso stated that men are more inclined to commit crimes due to the conservatism and the narrow-mindedness of their interests.
According to Lombroso women have less social contacts and this is what predetermines their conservatism. This theory of female deviance seems to be very discriminating and not a present-day issue. All the biological theories are based on the notion that biological markers foreordain criminal behavior.
The core of all these theories is that genetic factors or any abnormalities which are inherited or acquired throughout the life, predispose individuals to the criminal behavior. Among the biological theories the XYY syndrome occupies a special place, as it analyzes why males are more often subjects to become criminals due to the presence if an extra Y chromosome.A prison, also known as a correctional facility, jail, gaol (dated, British and Australian English), penitentiary (American English), detention center (American English), or remand center is a facility in which inmates are forcibly confined and denied a variety of freedoms under the authority of the kaja-net.coms are most commonly used within a criminal .
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Crime occurs when a law is kaja-net.com law is clear, has usually been set down in writing and is enforced by the police and the judiciary system. When someone breaks the law by, for example, by breaking into someone’s house or stealing a car, they may end up paying a fine or going to jail.
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