How to Write a Summary of an Article? Gender Theories Gender theories Sex is biologically given.
It is present in every society. However, its distribution differs from society to society. Two major and interesting questions which demand answers are: How power stands distributed in society?
Several theories have been advocated by Political Sociologists and each of which seeks to explain the possession and distribution of power in society.
Class Theory of Power: It holds that in each society there are present two classes: It possesses social, economic, ideological and political power in society.
It uses power to maintain its dominance over the society. It exploits suppresses and dominants the class of the poor.
It is the Ruling Class. It uses the state as an instrument for maintaining its dominant status. Marxism holds that in every stage of social evolution, the class of the rich the propertied class which owns the means of production and distribution in society has always used power in society.
The class of the rich always imposes and maintains its economic, social, ideological and political domination over the whole society. However, some Marxist scholars, like Gramsci, and others like Weber, advocate the view that undoubtedly power in each society is really in the hands of the dominant class which can be any class, the bureaucracy or an ideologically dominant class.
This dominant class can use an ideology or political persuasion or leadership structure or intellectual power or morality as the means for securing the consent of the non-propertied class or other classes for securing its dominance in society.
In other words, while Marx and his traditional followers hold that power is possessed and always used by the economically dominant class of the rich, some other scholars hold that no doubt the power is always in the hand of a class but this can be any class which dominates the society by using several different means.
Thus, Class Theory of Power holds that power is always possessed and used by a class of persons in each society.
Elite Theory of Power: The Elite Theory of holds that in each society power is possessed and used by a small group of persons, the elite, which takes all decisions and rules the society.
In each society, the power is really in the hands of the elite called the Power Elite. The Elite is a small group of persons which takes all major decisions and is the centre of power in society. The ruling elite are always a minority of the people which uses power.
Each of them holds that power in each society is in the hands of a minority A small group of people or some particular social groups which are powerful not only because they are well organized groups but also because they possess some special qualities ruling ability, wealth, skill, knowledge or social status.
The struggle for power in each society is really a struggle among elites for getting the power to make all major decisions in society.
The membership of dominant elites keeps on changing but the elite rule is the law of each society. In other words, the Elite Theory advocates the view that power in each society is always used by elites — by a minority of people which uses political power by virtue of its organisation, ideology, wealth, ability or royal status.
Each social class or a section of society is really dominated by an elite. Pluralist Theory of Power: The Pluralist Theory of Power rejects both the Class theory of power as well as the Elite theory of power.
It holds that power is each society is really used neither by one class nor by any elite but by several different groups. In every society there are present several groups of people each of which represents a major interest or some interests. These are competing groups which compete for sharing power and influence in society.
These share and use their activities of influencing and determining all decisions and policies of society and its government. Sovereignty is exercised by social groups and associations and it is not the monopoly of the state. Gender Theory of Power: The Gender Theory of Power holds that in all societies, the power is actually in the hands of the men who as a group dominate as the group of women in society.
The power in each society stands centralized in the hands of the group of men and it is the power of the gender domination of man as a group over the women as a group.Criminology, with its overwhelming use of masculine models, theories and subjects has largely attempted to impose these models upon female crime, crime victims and system-issues in an effort to explain how and why female crime occurs.
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