Home The solution to a problem is not always found at the level of the problem. Chasing symptoms with antacids and other medication can be a dead-end street, unless you are dedicated to personally enriching the stockholders of pharmaceutical companies.
After all, repeated oxalic dribbles have been shown to cause adverse effects , although OA applied by vaporization appears to be easier on the bees .
But oxalic is a relatively strong acid, so there must be a limit. The clusters in those hives tended to move to the lower box, and there appeared to be substantial larval mortality and shot brood patterns Fig. At 20 days after application, all 5 of the hives in which I applied the chipboard strips exhibited elevated mortality of the young larvae, resulting in the shot brood patterns above.
Surprisingly, despite the apparent adverse effects to the brood, mite counts by this time were not reduced to any extent. The chipboard stock has no odor or unusual taste that I can detect, so I strongly suspect that this effect is due to the treatment.
Perhaps the adverse effect was due to the fact that I swapped out the recently-applied towels for fresh chipboard strips after 5 days.
Anyway, it will be necessary for us to determine the dose and concentration at which oxalic acid in glycerin causes adverse effects to the colony, and the above observations are a step in that direction.
Since the bees are blocked from contact with a substantial proportion the undersides of horizontal strips due to their resting on the top bars, it would seem that the bees would have been exposed to far more OA with the hung strip applications, yet the horizontal strips appear to be releasing a stronger dose.
We clearly need to investigate this more deeply! Initial research by Milani  found that the addition of glycerin to oxalic acid was synergistic, acting as a humectant to absorb water from the air which would thus allow the OA to dissociate and free its biologically-active acidic hydronium ions.
In trials in petri dishes, he found that the addition of glycerol roughly tripled the lethality of OA to mites allowed to crawl over the treated surface. The higher the humidity, the better that glycerin absorbed water from the air this is why we need to test this treatment in both low- and high-humidity environments .
Or maybe it only affects mites that walk over the body of bees or comb surfaces contaminated with the solution. Among substances of natural origin used against V. Maggi  showed evidence that varroa does not appear to be able to rapidly develop resistance to oxalic acid.
This may be because of the strong physiochemical effects of acids upon the mite—rather than it targeting a specific protein or neuroreceptor.
Hive 45 was the only OA-treated hive in which the mite count rose in Trial 1. At 48 days, I reapplied fresh shop towels, yet its high mite count remained the same after 25 more days. Is it possible that there is a clonal matriline of mites in that hive that are resistant to oxalic acid?
I sure hope not and will keep checking. Apparently the mites were not resistant afterall. I share the concern of Milani that since OA is so cheap and easy to use for varroa control, that beekeepers will overuse it, and thus quickly breed for resistant mites. On the other hand, plants have been fighting herbivores for hundreds of millions of years, and have become master chemists at producing compounds toxic to arthropods.
There may be too great a fitness tradeoff for varroa to develop resistance to strong physiochemically-active natural plant toxins such as thymol or oxalic acid e. I strongly suspect that extended-release oxalic acid in glycerin is going to be a game changer in varroa management. My sons, after checking mite counts in some yards today, are already asking me whether we should start incorporating it into our mite management strategy when it becomes legal.
Cross your fingers that Dr. Acknowledgements Thank you to Dr. I admire Joe for his sober assessment of the problems facing our industry these past tumultuous years, and for providing a reliable source of information to the beekeeping community in the form of this magazine, his ABJ Extras, and his revised editions of The Hive and the Honey Bee.
Joe, we all wish you a well-earned and enjoyable retirement! Notes and Citations  With each experiment, we are learning more about how best to apply this treatment—it is not a done thing, so please do not ask me for recipes.
If you wish to experiment yourself, please check with your State Lead Agency for pesticide regulation to see whether you need to obtain an experimental use permit. Please do not bother your EPA district office—the EPA Registration department would prefer to handle the process without needless confusion.
Journal of Apiculture Research. Schneider, S, et al Sub lethal effects of oxalic acid on Apis mellifera Hymenoptera: Journal of Apicultural Research. To quote from Steiner: Wherever there is life, there is oxalic acid, an etheric body.
The etheric body brings it about that the oxalic acid is renewed. But the oxalic acid never becomes a formic acid that can be used by the human or animal organism unless it is first transformed by an astral body from oxalic into formic acid.
Deposits constituted by droplets of liquid were more active than dry deposits. Effect of oxalic acid on the mite Varroa destructor and its host the honey bee Apis mellifera. Bulletin of Insectology 70 1:Final Report of the Safety Assessment of Hyaluronic Acid, Potassium Hyaluronate, and Sodium Hyaluronate International Journal of Toxicology Volume 28 Number 4S.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 91 Fats and fatty acids in human nutrition − Report of an expert consultation FAO Fats and fatty acids. Acid Reflux Home. The solution to a problem is not always found at the level of the problem. Chasing symptoms with antacids and other medication can be a dead-end street, unless you are dedicated to personally enriching the stockholders of pharmaceutical companies.
INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMME ON CHEMICAL SAFETY CONCISE INTERNATIONAL CHEMICAL ASSESSMENT DOCUMENT NO. 26 BENZOIC ACID AND SODIUM BENZOATE This report contains the collective views of an international group of experts and does not necessarily represent the decisions or the stated policy of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour .
Identification. Salicylic acid, a beta hydroxy acid, is a derivative of aspirin. According to MiMi, an online encyclopedia, beta hydroxy acids have a small molecular size, allowing them to penetrate underlying skin layers and clean the skin by exfoliating, or removing dead skin cells and debris that clogs pores.
Glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup ®, is the most popular herbicide used worldwide. The industry asserts it is minimally toxic to humans, but here we argue otherwise. Residues are found in the main foods of the Western diet, comprised primarily of sugar, corn, soy and wheat.