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How to Write a Summary of an Article? It is sometimes amazing that any progress has been made in the racial equality arena at all; every tentative step forward seems to be diluted by losses elsewhere. From early activists such as Frederick Douglass, Booker T.
DuBois, to s civil rights leaders and radicals such as Martin Luther King, Malcolm X, and the Black Panthers, the progress that has been made toward full equality has resulted from the visionary leadership of these brave individuals. This does not imply, however, that there has ever been widespread agreement within the Black community on strategy or that the actions of prominent Black leaders have met with strong support from those who would benefit from these actions.
Through an analysis of the ideological differences between these two men, the writer will argue that, although they disagreed over the direction of the struggle for equality, the differences between these two men actually enhanced the status of Black Americans in the struggle for racial equality.
In order to understand the differences in the philosophies of Washington and Dubois, it is useful to know something about their backgrounds.
Washington, born a slave in in Franklin County, Virginia, could be described as a pragmatist. He was only able to attend school three months out of the year, with the remaining nine months spent working in coal mines. He developed the idea of Blacks becoming skilled tradesmen as a useful stepping-stone toward respect by the white majority and eventual full equality.
Washington worked his way through Hampton Institute and helped found the Tuskeegee Institute, a trade school for blacks. His essential strategy for the advancement of American Blacks was for them to achieve enhanced status as skilled tradesmen for the present, then using this status as a platform from which to reach for full equality later.
Significantly, he argued for submission to the white majority so as not to offend the power elite. William Edward Burghardt DuBois, on the other hand, was more of an idealist. DuBois was born in Massachusetts injust after the end of the Civil War and the official end of slavery.
DuBois wrote over 20 books and more than scholarly articles on the historical and sociological nature of the Black experience. He argued that an educated Black elite should lead Blacks to liberation by advancing a philosophical and intellectual offensive against racial discrimination.
The crux of the struggle for the ideological center of the racial equality movement is perhaps best exemplified in Mr.
In it, he makes an impassioned argument for his vision of an educated Black elite. DuBois also describes his opposition to Booker T. Washington arose as essentially the leader not of one race but of two—a compromiser between the South, the North, and the Negro.
Indeed, Washington backed up his assertions by founding the Tuskeegee Institute as a trade school for young Black men. DuBois could not abide this type of appeasement.
The paradox must have been maddening for both men, especially Mr. He no doubt understood that, as a group, Blacks could never hope to progress to the point of equality from their position of abject poverty.
Moreover, without skills, their hopes of escaping their economic inferiority were indeed scant. At the same time, he must have realized that, by accepting inferiority as a de- facto condition for the entire race, he may have broken the black spirit forever.
Supreme Court, for example. Thomas, clearly a beneficiary of affirmative action, announced that he was nonetheless opposed to it. Washington enjoyed access to the power elite of his time, but one must wonder whether President Roosevelt, for example, in his interactions with Mr.
Washington, was not merely using the situation for public relations value. On the day Roosevelt took office, he invited Washington to the White House to advise him on political appointments of Negroes in the south. DuBois was the more prescient visionary.
Perhaps he understood what Mr. Washington did not, that after the critical historical momentum toward social acceptance that had been established prior to the late nineteenth century, if political pressure were not maintained, the cause of true equality would be lost forever. Moreover, DuBois understood that equality would not be earned through appeasement.
From our perspective of over years, we must admit that he may have been right. For example, as the NAACP became more mainstream, it became increasingly conservative, and this did not please DuBois, who left the organization in In the political climate of the late s and s, any hint of a pro-communist attitude—black or white—was unwelcome in any group with a national political agenda.
However, perhaps it was more than the leadership of any one Black man that encouraged African Americans to demand a full measure of social and economic equality.TCI’s online History Alive! programs transform middle school social studies class into a multi-faceted learning experience.
TCI lessons start with a big idea — Essential Question — and incorporate graphic notetaking, groupwork, and step-by-step discovery. Many groups in U.S. history have sought recognition as equal citizens.
Although each group’s efforts have been notable and important, arguably the greatest, longest, and most violent struggle was that of African Americans, whose once-inferior legal status was even written into the text of the Constitution.
anthropology; archaeology; architecture; art. art criticism; literary criticism; film theory; biology; composition studies; criminology. pathways perspective; economics. The Struggle for Racial and Gender Equality in America.
The struggle for racial and gender equality in the United States is an ongoing battle.
These two issues can be studied separately, or in . Feminism, the belief in the social, economic, and political equality of the kaja-net.comgh largely originating in the West, feminism is manifested worldwide and is represented by various institutions committed to activity on behalf of women’s rights and interests..
Throughout most of Western history, women were confined to the domestic sphere, while public life was reserved for men. Martin Luther King, Jr. was a social activist and Baptist minister who played a key role in the American civil rights movement from the mids until his assassination in King sought.